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visual technology, reproduction, copy  

2013-09-09 21:06:03|  分类: 听的,读的,看的 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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reproduction of images through technological means and the social and cultural changes that accompany changes in technologies of reproduction.
relationship of technology to the meaning of images : as the embrace of perspective(n.观点,看法) was bound up with(与某事物关系密切的) epistemic(认知的) concerns about the subjective nature of embodies(表现,象征) vision and the potential for greater objectivity(客观性) through visual instruments.

changes in imaging technologies are part of broader epistemic shifts in the knowledge politics of their respective(各自的)eras.

Visual Technologies

understanding the history of imaging technologies:
1. examine how the introduction of a particular invention
ex: photographic camera, changed things in the world.

technologies interact with people and the forces of politics, economics, and other aspects of culture in various social and historical contexts, resulting in changes not only in the technologies themselves but also in social practices and uses.
-------they influence the society, at the same time ,they are the product of their particular societies, times and the ideologies that exist within them and within which they are used.

Decisions to introduce a technology for particular reasons sometimes serve unanticipated ends.

the fact that visual technologies emerge out of particular social and epistemic contexts means that their possibility often precedes(在..之前发生或者出现) their development.
ex: elements of the technique of linear perspective 
Greeks knew the basics of perspective, but they rejected it as a technique, because contract to certain fundamental philosophical ideas, like a drawing using perspective might trick a viewer.
The development of perspective as a dominant technique was the outcome of the social views of European culture in the early fifteenth century.

ex2: photographic images

chemical and mechanical elements necessary to produces photographic images existed
1830s, invented photography simultaneously(同时地,一齐)
early uses of photography: institutional(medical,legal, and scientific uses) and personal(for portraits), these uses influenced the ways that photographic technologies were developed.

"the origins of photography raise the question not of who invented photography but at what moment did photography shift from an occasional, isolated, individual fantasy to a demonstrably widespread, social imperative?"
in other words: photography emerged as a popular medium not simply because it was invented, but because it fulfilled particular social demands of the early nineteenth century.

photography became a popular visual technology because:
1.it fit emerging social concepts and needs of the time-------
modern ideas about the individual in the context of growing urban centers
modern concepts of technological progress and mechanization
modern concepts of time and spontaneity(自发性)
the desire to contain nature and landscape in mechanically reproducible form
rise of bureaucratic(官僚的) institutions in the modern state interested in documentation(记录,参考资料)and classification.

2.usher(引领)in the age of modernity(现代性) to the extent that it epitomizes(概况,做...的缩影) that era.
photography emerged along with discourses of science, the penal system, medicine, the media ,and other institutions of everyday life that made visual reproducibility one of the imperatives of modernity.
"We cannot claim to have really seen anything before having photographed it."------Emile Zola(French novelist)

photography epitomized the new and modern way of seeing that prevailed in the nineteenth century.

Motion and Sequence
desire to visualize movement in the increasingly mobile and fast-paced society of late-nineteenth-century modernity.
the introduction of cinema projection devices:
an interest in paintings and photographs representing movement that could not be grasped by the unaided eye.(视觉暂留现象 (Visual staying phenomenon,duration of vision))
ex: Jacques-Henri 
, photography of the  wheels of the car appear elongated(延长的) due to the speed with which they turn.


 Muybridge ,notable among photographers exploring the depiction of motion.
1.Did the hooves (hoof蹄,马蹄)of a horse ever leave the ground all at the same time in the midst(中间) of a gallop(飞驰)? The unaided eye could not discern the fact. 
set up an elaborate(复杂的,精心制作的)system of twelve stereoscopic(有立体感的) cameras,each set twelve feet apart on a stretch of(伸展的) track(跟踪)and rigged(操纵)with an electrical trigger(启动装置,扳机).

试验过程:as the horse covered the ground of the track, it tripped the triggers, setting off (开始)the shutter(快门) of each camera one immediately after another(相继的 one after another) resulting in a contiguous(邻近的)series of images of the horse in stages of motion.
The horse did indeed(的确) become airborne for a fleeting(短暂的,稍纵即逝) instant(瞬间) with its legs tucked(卷起,塞进) under its torso(躯干).
2.produced motion studies of humans

In the decades prior to the cinema, entertainers on the vaudeville/?v?d?v?l/(歌舞杂耍表演) circuit(巡回,电流), magicians(魔术师), and traveling performers entertained spectators(观众)with a range of techniques that would later be regarded by historians as precursors/pr??k?:s?/(前驱,先锋,初期形势)to cinematic projection.

magic lantern(灯笼) show: still photographic slides with narrative or descriptive accompaniment(伴奏)
the sequential arrangement of images, their projection for an assembled group, and the voice-over narration of the live perfomer lent a kind of flow and theatrical display element that would later be a strong feature of motion pictures.

projection machines variously called Zoetropes, Paxinoscopes, and Phenakistoscope

designed on the model of the camera obscura, included a kind of round drum(鼓) that accommodated an interior light source.
Inside the drum: a strip of photographs taken in a sequence
spun the inner drum, the serial images each passed a peephole(窥视孔)in a rapid sequence,giving the illusion of a flickering(一闪一闪的) moving image.

Other viewing devices presented images that appeared to move into depth within the frame.
The stereoscope , offered two separate views on the same scene arranged to replicate(复制) the positioning of the two eyes and then optically(视力的) converged(线条会于一点)to simulate(模仿) depth in the scene.

art historian Jonathan Crary: the stereoscope dislocated(离位的)the singular(突出的,非凡的)view of geometric perspective embedded(植入)in the instrument of the camera obscura, fracturing(破裂) this unitary(单一的)view into two slightly different views of a scene that , when seen together through a viewing device, appear to have a kind of animated, shifting depth.

used for:
home amusement------
with scenes of nature, 
shots of national monuments, 
semipornographic(有点色情描写的的) views being the genres most popular among collectors
illustration of astronomical and anatomical(解剖的,结构上的) atlase(地图集).
a sense of the image(titled"leisure time") as creating a secret or titillating (使人激动的)view was a common effect

apparatus仪器 of the projector and the viewing context of the theater
initial: kinescope(显像管):individual viewers could stand before a peephole through which they could watch a projection of a short motion picture film.

invention of cinema:
moving picture camera
flexible form of film(celluloid) (赛络路片)that could be projected and reprojected without falling apart(散开)

development of projector, an instrument that could be used to exhibit films onto a surface in a projection that was large enough for an assembled group of people to watch the same film at the same time
ability for people assemble in a group before a projected image

cinema added the elements of temporality,movement,and eventually sound to photography, allowing the photographic image to become a primary means of temporal narrative storytelling.

intercutting(使镜头交切) two scenes taking place at the same time in order to give the spectator a sense of being in both places at once.

silent period: established the convention of cutting between two characters to indicate an exchange of dialogue between them.

hallmark特点 of the classical Hollywood"realist" fiction film style

The juxtaposition(并列) or combination of two images to create a third meaning, a concept based on the dialectic(辩证法)(the idea that each meaning builds on the previous one to create a more comprehensive meaning) and theorized famously by the Soviet Filmmaker Sergei Eisenstein, remains a central component of understanding how films make meaning.
Montage became an important strategy for representing the passage of time both in mainstream films and in experimental films.

sequential(构成连续镜头的) action

Cinema borrows codes of photographic realism and fantastical imagination from photography and adds motion and the layered meanings of sequential action.

Image Reproduction:The Copy
copy phenomenon
funerary scrolls for  the coffins of dead pharaohs and court member s began to be copied more widely and placed in the coffins of those wh were not nobility.

valuing of the original, uncopied work has dominated the history of images.
the age of mechanical production,paintings and sulptures were ptentially reproducible.
reproduced by hand(replicas)(复制品)

Value is a key factor in the status of reproduction.
woodblock print(木板印刷)
Chinese antiquity(古代)

the lower the number in a series, the more rare, and hence potentially valuable, is each copy.

Some technologies of imaging are designed to produce multiple similar images. These include printmaking techniques such as engraving (版画),etching and woodcuts, which were popularized in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and lithography(平版印刷术)(popularized in the early nineteenth century).

The "exactly repeatable visual or pictorial statement" has been central to the dissemination(散播) of knowledge since the early fifteenth century.

the medium of photography
coincided, paradoxically, with a cult of originality
previous:traditions of making replicas of works, by the artist or under his or her supervision, in the same medium
now: the rise of photographic reproduction, original be easily reproduced in copies 

camera obscura, in use for seeing and drawing device
Joseph Nicephore, French inventor,1820, 
camera abscura(暗箱)
expose permanent iamges in a process that took eight hours.
补充材料: In 1827, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce produced the world's first permanent photograph (known as a Heliograph). Daguerre partnered with Niépce two years later, beginning a four-year cooperation. Niépce died suddenly in 1833. The main reason for the "partnership", as far as Daguerre was concerned, was connected to his already famous dioramas. Niepce was a printer and his process was based on a faster way to produce printing plates. Daguerre thought that the process developed by Niepce could help speed up his diorama creation.


Daguerre 发明daguerreotype(银板照相),single, negative image that is seen in positive by the viewer.

补充材料: Daguerre announced the latest perfection of the Daguerreotype, after years of experimentation, in 1839, with the French Academy of Sciences announcing the process on January 9 of that year. 

other processes: ambrotype, tintype
roll film, George Eastman in 1884

The acceptance of the photograph in the fine art market, in which the concept of the original continues t reign, was neither easy nor fast in part because of the form's association with production by machine.

The strong association of the photographic form with the mechanical instrument and the technical process, and not the hand of the artist, worked against the ida of photography as an art form.

devalue and discredit(丧失名誉) those works

writings on photography throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth century emphasized the mechanical nature of the medium even as they also noted the ability of photography to capture evidence of spiritual life.

Strong place in science, medicine, and law as a means of documenting truths about events, objects ,and people in the world.
as a objective form,photography embodied(表现,象征)the rationalism(理性主义) of the modern era, augmenting the eye(使扩张).

The photograph has also been noted by Roland Barthes and film theorist Andre Bazin, among others, for having a unique affinity(密切关系) with the real,which they describe as the "noeme"of photography.

phenomenology(现象学), a branch of philosophy devoted to the study of embodied sensory(感觉的,感受的)experience, which is regarded as the root of being and knowledge.

(indexical(索引的)quality)empirical coexistence of the camera and the real scene

Like the touch of the hand of the artist, the photograph, in these accounts, is regarded as conveying the "touch" that guarantees the scene as an authentic record of the filmed object's or scene's having been there.
The photograph is empirical in both an epistemological(认知论的)sense(it provides knowledge of what has been), and an ontological(存在论的) sense(it guarantees that something has, in fact, been)

The photograph was not simply the outcome, after the camera obscura, of the desire of mechanical copies. It was also a tool of empirical(经验主义的)investigation. 
only significant form distinguished art from not-art in arousing our aesthetic emotions. 

Art photographers established what was significantly photographic, emphasizing the unique qualities of the photographic surface, black- and - white imagery, and shadow and light that the technique afforded and that would arouse aesthetic appreciation within the terms of photography's own distinct codes. Art photographers thus gained acceptance for their medium as a form that has its own unique qualities, rather than capitalizing on the photograph as copy.

Walter Benjamin and Mechanical Reproduction

there is no original work to speak of but rather a series of copies(prints) that stand equally in the place of the singular original work. Reproducibility as a quality of the medium moved the artwork out from the centuries-long emphasis on uniqueness and authenticity as the qualities that confer value to it.

reproducibility as a potentially revolutionary element, because it freed art from its revered status as unique ritual artifact in traditions of iconic reverence and exchange. 

Art, newly understood as existing in forms designed for reproducibility and circulation, could be a democratizing(民主化)force and could now become engaged in a more fluid socialist politics that included reception(接待)by the masses through the broader circulation(流传)of copies.

The inherently reproducible form became much more pervasive by the end of the twentieth century, transforming art-making and art-marketing practices dramatically.

One of the paradoxes of the era of mechanical reproducibility is taht advances in mechanical and digital reproduction techniques have been matched by advances in mechanical and digital techniques for verifying the authenticity of works of fine art claimed to be originals.

Visual technologies such as X-ray imaging are now routinely used to discern fakes ,forgeries, and changes make to original works.

Benjamin argued that the one-of-a-kind artwork has a particular aura.
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